17+ types of psychology (a short presentation)

17+ types of psychology (a short presentation)

In this article, I will present to you the 18 types of psychology and their definition. We also talk about what psychology as a science is, and what it is not. 

18 Types of Psychology 

We know psychology as the science that analyzes the mental processes and behaviour of humans. Generally, it helps us find answers, describe and explain the aspects, feelings, thoughts and actions of people and how many types of psychology there are and what they are.

Currently, there are 18 types of psychologies, each of these models, have different areas of specialization. Nowadays, many of the psychological ones exercise their profession in the investigation, teaching and practical field. 

One of the biggest debates in psychology is the Nature vs Nurture debate. Every perspective/approach in psychology mainly focuses on this area.

17+ types of psychology (a short presentation)

Clinical psychology

It is that psychology that studies in detail the evaluation, diagnosis and medical treatment of people who suffer from a psychological illness. In general, it is aimed at reducing stress, being able to find personal well-being and physical-mental-emotional well-being of people.

It is common for clinical psychologists to study clinical neuropsychology and forensic evidence in depth. Furthermore, within this field, specialists subsequently explore what the individual’s psychological problems are.

Cognitive psychology

For its part, cognitive psychology is the one that studies all the mental processes that establish behavioural characteristics. That is, they basically focus on perception, attention, learning, understanding, and attention. In this way, mental reasoning techniques with normal functions are applied. 

In cognitive psychology, several specialists can participate, among them are: linguists, neurobiologists and logicians, who deal with the theory and formalization of the individual.

Developmental psychology

In this scientific area, the progressive changes or alterations that can occur in people over time are studied, until they can reach old age.

In this psychological field, specialists focus on trying to explain the growth and development of life, along with the thoughts, behaviours and feelings that people can obtain throughout their existence.

17+ types of psychology (a short presentation)

Experimental psychology

Experimental psychology uses different experimental and scientific methods to get a deep understanding of human mentality and behaviour.

The experimental procedure of psychology tries to capture the understanding also of the behaviour of animals based on humans.

Likewise, it aims to understand mental processes through variable manipulation that emphasize human behaviour.

Health psychology

As we said before, today there are different types of psychology, each one studies and analyzes the human being in different fields.

And that is why health psychology is not the exception. In this psychological branch, everything related to full health maintenance is studied, including disease prevention.

Community psychology

Community psychology is one that dominates the interactions between the environment and people.

In addition, it allows us to know the different ways in which the community can interrupt the individual functioning of each being.

The community psychology approach – It is to improve the well-being of people and society with alternative medications designed for the full collaboration of the affected members of the community, internally or externally of psychology.

Among the examples of psychology that we can mention, is that community psychologists focus on finding ways to help the most vulnerable.

Such as for example: people with low economic resources, those deprived of personal freedom or those who are homeless.

17+ types of psychology (a short presentation)

Sports psychology

Sports psychology is used to recognize the psychological skills and knowledge to undertake the performance and well-being of athletes.

Here, in this field, the influence of the different psychological, social and pro aspects of sports development is analyzed.

Likewise, the systemic problems that can be associated with sports organizations are studied:

  • Self-efficiency
  • Attention
  • Activation or stress level
  • Relationships
  • Influence on the communication environment

Differential psychology

Differential psychology differs from the rest of the types of psychology. Because in this branch specialists try to study the different ways in which beings are similar, especially the psychological characteristics that make them unequal.

Within psychological research and analysis, it has been discovered that there are endless group and individual differences that affect human behaviour.

Comparative psychology

It is the model of psychology that is in charge of studying in depth the behaviour of animals. That is, in this branch, the existing species are compared, the similarities between the animal and man or the animal and the subgroups (feline and canine psychology).

Forensic psychology

Now forensic psychology or also known as the psychology of the law.

It is one that is applied in criminal science and that focuses on all matters of the law or legal system of a nation. Its function is based on the analysis and studies of the reasoning after the decisions made by a jury, the testimonies of the witnesses and the legal evidence of a case.

At the same time, forensic psychology is the branch responsible for clinical reports and systematic evaluation in the judicial field.

Read more about forensic psychology in this article.

17+ types of psychology (a short presentation)

Organizational psychology

Another of the best known and applied psychologies in the social environment. It is organizational psychology, whose objective is to scientifically study the behaviour and attitudes of the people involved in a work area.

In addition, it examines the underlying psychosocial processes that organizations may have.

Child psychology

Child psychology is a branch that focuses on the behaviour of children using techniques focused on traditional psychology. Here, we can determine what the process, development and behaviour of an infant are like.

Industrial psychology

This branch of psychology addresses practical problems in the workplace through the application of psychological principles.

Industrial psychologists, also called organizational psychologists, are employed by companies to administer tests that measure the skills or abilities of employees in hiring and placement programs.

Biopsychology

This branch of psychology examines the role that the brain and neurotransmitters play in influencing our thoughts, feelings, and behaviours.

It combines neuroscience and the study of psychology.

17+ types of psychology (a short presentation)

Educational Psychology

Educational psychology is the scientific study of human behaviour in an educational environment and, as such, deals with issues such as learning disorders, adolescent behaviours, etc.

These studies focus mainly on the different stages of development of children and adolescents.

Social psychology

Focused on the psychological aspects of individuals within a community setting, community psychology explores characteristics such as interdependence, adaptation, diplomacy, empowerment, social justice, etc.

Also called critical psychology.

Industrial psychology

This branch of psychology addresses practical problems in the workplace through the application of psychological principles.

Industrial psychologists, also called organizational psychologists, are employed by companies to administer tests that measure the skills or abilities of employees in hiring and placement programs.

Health Psychology

This branch of psychology looks at how behaviour, biology, and the social context influence disease and health. Health psychologists generally work alongside other medical professionals in clinical settings. 

17+ types of psychology (a short presentation)

What is (and what is not) psychology?

Psychological professors and researchers from the top 300 universities believe that: Psychology is an empirical science.

Through the means of empirical science, researchers observe, measure, (counter) verify, test and examine the reality of human and social functioning in order to describe, explain and anticipate it in the most accurate terms. Applied to psychology, it becomes the study of the human mind, brain and behaviour through objective methods. 

  • Not by introspective methods, the favourites of therapists and psychologists disconnected from scientific research, (but amateurs of projective diagnosis). 
  • Not through interpretations of symbols, inner travels, dream explorations, hallucinations in a trance, imagery given by the ingestion of psychotropic substances or hyper-ventilation. 
  • Nor through meditation. This is a shamanic or witchcraft psychology.

Introspective methods greatly risk misinterpretations or explanations. The testimonies (those testimonials), regardless of their number, do not prove causal relationships. Only a controlled experiment can demonstrate a causal relationship in probabilistic terms. Testimonies taken as evidence become, in the scientific idiom, anecdotal evidence. 

In everyday speech, many people turn to the immaterial entity called the “psychic.” So we meet everywhere with psychic processes and mechanisms, (neuro) psychic functioning, psychic forces and much more. 

The “psyche” is an abstraction used by both novices and many specialists. They do not know that it is an abstraction and fall into the error of reification and confuse it with a real entity.

Although redundant for some readers, the concept of “psychic” has long become a metaphor, coming out of the modern psychological idiom precisely for differentiation from the perspective of the philosophy of knowledge. 

In modern psychology, we examine and seek to understand the mind and the brain as a unit. It is a monolith separable in two parts, “the mind and the brain”, only in a conceptual sense. I repeat, “brain and mind” is a unitary phenomenon that is happening, right now, in our heads, when I write and you read. Indeed, in modern psychology:

The brain and the mind are inseparable (with an adaptive role for the individual). Therefore, the correct use is made by the “psychological” attribute. Thus, we have psychological processes and causes, psychological functioning, psychopathological symptoms or psychological disorders. 

The brain (mind) and body did not suddenly emerge from Mother Nature with the help of divine breath. They have evolved as any other creature and plant has evolved on this planet. In an evolutionary paradigm, the mind (brain) is a collection of adaptive mechanisms, evolved through natural selection, necessary in solving problems of adaptation to the environment.

Derived from the same outdated definition of the object of psychology, it is believed that the process of “nurture” (parental, educational and cultural influences) has an overwhelming impact compared to “nature”, i.e. hereditary factors.  Genetic and environmental influences are inextricably linked.

Researchers study how thoughts, emotions, and behaviours are simultaneously (and inseparably) influenced by genes and culture. However, discrimination between the two types of influences is possible through the statistical concept (applied in behavioural genetics) of heritability.

The new biology revolution is stimulating for psychology. Brain chemistry, the human genome and observation of the brain in full mental activity are research directions that stimulate the field of psychology. Without basic knowledge in these directions, the psychologist is an incomplete craftsman.

17+ types of psychology (a short presentation)

A summary

In this article, I presented to you the 18 types of psychology and their definition. We also talked about what psychology as a science is, and what it is not. 

Psychology is an empirical science.

Through the means of empirical science, researchers observe, measure, (counter) verify, test and examine the reality of human and social functioning in order to describe, explain and anticipate it in the most accurate terms. Applied to psychology, it becomes the study of the human mind, brain and behaviour through objective methods. 

If you have any questions or comments, please let us know!

References

Medicalnewstoday.com – What is psychology and what does it involve?

Sacap.edu.za  – The 10 types of psychology, and what they entail

Betterhelp.com – What Are The Various Types Of Psychology?

17+ types of psychology (a short presentation)

Nadejda Romanciuc

Nadejda Romanciuc holds a Bachelor’s degree in psychology and a diploma in Addiction studies. She is part of the Romanian Association of Integrative Psychotherapy as a psychotherapist under supervision. She's practicing online counselling for over two years and is a strong advocate for mental health.