Top-down processing (Examples)

Top-down processing

Top-down processing usually takes place when the general knowledge we have guides our perceptions in a specific direction.

Utilizing top-down processing influences the context of the information we are understanding in the same perception.

Basically top-down processing is how we process an idea from a general concept or larger concept to a more detailed information.

Top-down processing happens if we keep working on a general concept to make it more detailed and work on defining every single little detail for the concept.

In the process of top-down processing, the information gathered through the five senses can be influenced by your abstract impressions. 

Top-down processing (Examples)

The Concept of Top-Down Processing

The concept of top-down processing was introduced by a psychologist named Richard Gregory in 1970.

The main claim of his study was that perception conceived by our mind is constructive.

According to his study while working when we perceive something or some idea we must rely on our prior knowledge and on the context of the situation to correctly interpret the perception.

According to the study given by Gregory, perception can also be said as a process of hypothesis testing.

He suggested that the visual information that is perceived by the eye is lost by 90% before it can even reach the brain.

So in this scenario, when we see something new or we don’t know of, we don’t only rely on our senses to identify it but we also rely on our existing knowledge and past experiences to create a hypothesis of what that thing might be.

If the hypothesis we came at is correct we can build up on this combination of our senses and knowledge constructively but if our hypothesis is wrong it might lead towards perceptual errors.

Why We Use Top-Down Processing

Top-down processing is one of the most important factors that influence our interaction with the environment around us on a daily basis.

Our five senses are taking in information continuously as at any given time we are taking in information through our eyes or experiencing different smells, taste, sounds or feeling through touch.

If we start paying attention to each and every bit of this information we will not be able to do anything else, here top-down processing comes into play and helps us understand the perception of the object by streamlining a process that relies on the context of the information and our pre-existing knowledge.

If our brain does not implement top-down processing all of our senses will be overwhelmed with the information they need to process. 

Using Top-Down Processing

Top-down processing also helps us to understand the things we perceive in our daily routines using our senses.

One of the areas where this example has been demonstrated in our daily identification of letters and reading.

Number of experiments taken out on different groups of participants have shown that when they were presented by either a word or a brief letter, the participants when asked later on were able to identify the word more accurately.

Although word had more visual stimuli then the letter but the context of the word helped participants in remembering it accurately.

This is also known as the superiority effect, which is a very useful tool to have in everyday life.

Taking into account another example, suppose you receive an important letter related to your job but there are few parts or text of the letter smeared with drops of water.

Those words in the letter are now just smudges but you are still able to read the letter fully using top-down processing.

As you use the context of the sentences and words and by utilizing your prior knowledge of reading and context you comprehend the meaning of the message written in the letter. 

Positive and Negatives of Top-Down Processing

Top-down processing by simplifying the way we understand our sensory perceptions also serves as a positive function.

There is much information around us and we are always perceiving multiple things.

Top-down processing also enables us to make less work of the cognitive path between what we perceive and their meaning.

One of the reasons for this development is that top-down processing helps us in understanding and recognizing these patterns.

Patterns are termed as useful because they help us to comprehend and understand how to interact with the world.

For example, when we come across a new mobile phone that we have not seen before, we dont panic but try to comprehend it with our prior knowledge of mobile phones and or past experiences.

As with most of the mobile phones, the pattern to unlock or open applications and interactions with different workings of a mobile phone are the same so we can utilize our prior knowledge and patterns to comprehend the new mobile device. 

Top-down processing (Examples)

In the same way patterns can be useful they can also prevent us from perceiving things in some other new way as we get used to the pattern.

In the same example as stated above, as we may understand a certain pattern of how to use a mobile phone but what if the manufacturer comes with some new or unique pattern in its new device, in such a scenario we might not be able to figure out the pattern at once.

This is one of the scenarios where top-down processing might have some negative results. 

As our knowledge is not vast and is limited and biased in some aspects, so when we apply our knowledge to things that we perceive it also makes our perceptions limited and biased.

So, for example, if a person has been using one phone manufacturer all his life let’s suppose iPhone and are presented with a new kind of phone that has the same features or even better to that of an iPhone, the main perception of the person might be that the user experience for phone is inferior to that of iPhone.

  • In an environment and world, where the information we are surrounded by is limitless that can make our sensory experiences overwhelming, top-down processing can help us to comprehend the meaning behind the information quickly. 
  • Top-down processing is especially useful when we are looking for specific patterns in the environment surrounding us, recognizing patterns and utilizing them can be beneficial and both harmful as it can limit our perception and prevent us from thinking of new ways. Because of understanding each and every perception based on our past experiences, expectations and beliefs we view objects with a certain in a specific way which is known as perceptual set.

The Importance of Top-Down Processing

Why is top-down processing important?

In our current state we are always surrounded with a hefty amount of information, such that given the normal circumstances we would not be able to comprehend every single detail.

Top-down processing helps us to simplify this information and comprehend it with the prior knowledge of our understanding of the world.

The first glance, board general view of a scenario then further influence the more finer details that you can focus on later as you take in more information about the environment around you.

Just consider how much information you are always surrounded with at any given moment in your life.

You are always surrounded by a plethora of sights, smells, sounds,tastes, physical sensations, and textures.

If you start focusing on each and every one of these information or sensations you will be overwhelmed by the amount of information you are taking in.

Processing information using the top-down processing helps us to make sense of most of the information that has already been sensed by our senses, working from the initial sense or broader picture to the lower level detailed senses of each sensation. 

How Existing Knowledge Influences Perception

Top-down processing can also be called conceptually-driven processing since in this concept the perceptions are mostly influenced by existing beliefs, expectations and understanding.

In some of the cases where top-down processing takes place, you might be aware of the influences that causes the phenomena but in most cases this process occurs without your awareness. 

For example, you are on the road and driving through a neighborhood you are not familiar with or have not been to at any given point in your life and you see a sign for a convenience store.

The sign had several missing letters but still you are able to read and understand the meaning for the sign. Why ?

This is because of top-down processing which helped you in understanding the meaning behind the sign relying on your existing knowledge.

Influences On This Process

Top-down processing can be influenced by a number of ways like motivation and context.

The circumstances, situation or context can also influence our perception of what we are expecting from that particular situation.

For example, in case you are reading a specific article related to cooking, nutrition or food and you come across a couple of words you are not familiar with you might interpret them to be something related to food automatically.

Motivation can also result in the interpretation of any situation or scenario in a particular way.

For example, if you are hungry and motivated towards eating,  you might interpret a set of ambiguous images as food related.

Top-down processing (Examples)

Top-Down Processing In Action

Here we will explore a couple of examples for top-down processing to further simplify the phenomenon in action for understanding.

  • The Stroop Effect: One of the most classic examples of top-down processing in action is another phenomenon known as the Stroop effect. In this specific task, different color prints are taken with each word specifying another color from the one in which it is printed in. For example, if the word is printed as “RED” then the color it is printed in might be blue or black, similarly “Yellow” can be printed in white or any other color and so on. So the task at hand for the participants is to say aloud the color in which the word is printed in and not the color of the word. On measuring the response time for such a game, it can be seen that people tend to take more time in saying the color correctly rather than if asked to pronounce the printed word. The difficulty of this process can be explained by top-down processing, because of the process people can recognize the word before even taking information about the color which makes it easier for them to recognize the word rather than think about the color.
  • Typos: You might have come across some typos which you would not have noticed while reading the blog in a flow. While you are reading it in a flow, as your perception develops you might not even notice any text errors or typos which are present in the writing as your brain automatically fills in the missing words or corrects such mistakes.
Top-down processing (Examples)

FAQ about top down processing

Why is top down processing important?

Top-down processing helps us understand the information automatically that we have already comprehended previously and save us the trouble for our senses to go through it again. 

Where does top down processing start?

Top-down processing is when we take in the larger or broader idea and work our way towards every little detail present in the idea and understand it fully.

Generally speaking it can be stated that top-down processing means to start from general idea of a concept to a specific one.

Who invented top down processing?

Richard Gregory invented top down processing. 

References

https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-top-down-processing-2795975
https://www.thoughtco.com/top-down-processing-definition-4691802
http://openpsyc.blogspot.com/2014/06/bottom-up-vs-top-down-processing.html

Top-down processing (Examples)

Juanita Agboola

Juanita Agboola is the editor in chief of HFNE and an expert in mental health online. She has been writing about online behavior, mental health and psychology issues since 2012. All Guides are reviewed by our editorial team which constitutes various clinical psychologists, PhD and PsyD colleagues.