PMDD(premenstrual dysphoric disorder)

PMDD(premenstrual dysphoric disorder)

In this brief guide, we will be talking about the premenstrual dysphoric disorder, the symptoms of the premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and more information about the premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

What is PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) as a mood disorder?

PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) is a kind of mood disorder where extreme emotional responses are present during the menstrual periods.

In this situation, this kind of mood disorder tends to be present in some affected women. 

PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) was recently made a psychological disorder due to some women reporting distressing symptoms during their periods.

This kind of mood disorder has been considered controversial since this kind of mood disorder is only exclusive to women which makes it sexually degrading.

Psychologists did not make this kind of diagnosis to discriminate women.

They merely were meeting the needs of these affected women who need to be diagnosed and then given the appropriate treatment immediately. 

Some physical and psychological symptoms of PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) are present in women who are undergoing this kind of diagnosis.

Also, the presenting signs and symptoms should cause great distress, danger, and dysfunction in the affected women.

What are the symptoms and signs of premenstrual dysphoric disorder?

The symptoms and signs of PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) are the following:

  • Long-term irritability or anger that may impact other people
  • Feelings of sadness or dread or even thoughts of suicide
  • Feelings of tension or anxiety
  • Panic attacks
  • Mood swings or crying more often than typical
  • Loss of interest in regular activities and relationships
  • Difficulty thinking or concentrating
  • Sleepiness or loss of energy
  • Food cravings or having binge eating episodes
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Sensing out of control
  • Physical symptoms such as cramps, breast tenderness, bloating, headaches, and joint or muscle ache

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PMDD(premenstrual dysphoric disorder)

What are the causes of PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder)?

The causes of PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) are still uncertain but some possible causes are the following:

  • Being very vulnerable to alternations in hormone measures. Current studies believe that PMDD is related to enhanced vulnerability to the normal hormonal alterations that happen during a woman’s monthly menstrual cycle.
  • Genetics. Some studies assume that this enhanced vulnerability to alterations in hormone degrees may be triggered by hereditary differences.

Other studies have found that women with PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) are victims or survivors of emotional abuse or physical abuse but there is still no back-up evidence to prove these claims.

What is premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and its symptoms and signs?

Premenstrual syndrome is a condition where there is a pattern of psychological, physical, and emotional symptoms that occur before 1 to 2 weeks from a woman’s menstrual cycle.

This condition is very common among women who are already at the age that reproduction is possible and the symptoms of this condition will be elaborated below.

Psychological Symptoms

  • Anger
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Irritability
  • Sense of feeling overburdened
  • Vulnerability to rejection
  • Social withdrawal

Physical Symptoms

  • Abdominal bloating
  • Appetite disruption where it is often increased appetite
  • Breast tenderness
  • Headaches
  • Slowness of movement or fatigue
  • Muscle pains and/or joint ache
  • Sleep disturbance
  • Swelling of sexual organs

Behavioural Symptoms

  • Fatigue
  • Forgetfulness
  • Poor Concentration

You can learn more about premenstrual syndrome by buying this book on this website.

PMDD(premenstrual dysphoric disorder)

The causes and risk factors of premenstrual syndrome

Doctors aren’t quite sure about the causes and risk factors of premenstrual syndrome.

Although some have suggested that this syndrome is caused by the significant changes in hormonal levels in women during their menstrual cycle.

Additionally, some women are more susceptible to premenstrual syndrome than other women.

How to treat premenstrual syndrome (PMS)?

General practitioners suggest these treatment options for women who are suffering from premenstrual syndrome:

  • hormonal medicine such as the combined contraceptive tablet or birth control pill
  • cognitive-behavioural therapy which is psychotherapy or a talking therapy
  • antidepressants

If you are still observed to have the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome, you will be referred to a specialist for this syndrome. These specialists can be the following professionals such as gynaecologist, counsellor or psychiatrist.

You can learn more about what a gynaecologist can do for your premenstrual syndrome by buying this book on this website.

PMDD(premenstrual dysphoric disorder)

How is PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) diagnosed?

PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) will be diagnosed by the doctor by asking about your medical background and testing you for the symptoms of this kind of mood disorder.

It is better if you kept a calendar or diary to know what symptoms of this mood disorder have you experienced

You will only be diagnosed with PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) if you have at least five symptoms of this mood disorder with one mood-related disorder of this psychological disorder.

How is PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) treated by medical professionals and specialists?

PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) is treated with a trial and error approach to psychological treatment.

This is because some treatment options may not good for the affected woman than another affected woman.

Lifestyle changes

For some affected women, adopting new habits that can minimize the symptoms of PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) is a good method to try daily.

These changes include the following habits:

  • Getting regular exercise. This doesn’t have to be an extreme workout activity in a gym. You can take a speedy 30-minute walk around your neighbourhood daily can help to enhance your mood.
  • Keeping your stress monitored. It’s hard to eliminate stress fully but attempt to remain on top of your main stressful factors. This goal might involve reaching out to a co-worker for help, taking up a relaxation strategy such as yoga or meditation or engaging in a good day planner.
  • Getting involved in moderation. You need to attempt to cut back on sweets and snacks that are high in sodium levels. You might also find some calmness by minimizing your intake of caffeine and alcohol.
  • Eating healthy for your mood. You need to aim for foods having lean protein and complicated carbohydrates. You can try fish, chicken, nuts, and whole grains. These forms of food can enhance your measures of tryptophan which is a chemical that your body utilizes to create serotonin. You need to remember that hormonal alterations can trigger a low drop in your serotonin degrees.

You need to know that these changes in your lifestyle can take weeks before you see significant effects on your PMDD symptoms.

You only need to value patience and persistence in doing these habits and reaching your aim.

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PMDD(premenstrual dysphoric disorder)

Therapy

Therapy can help you get some insights on how you can manage your PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) symptoms by knowing some strategies to reduce these symptoms.

Cognitive-behavioural therapy is the most famous psychotherapy that has been effective for this mood disorder.

Therapy can help you change your thinking patterns that can come from the dysregulation of mood in PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder).

Cognitive-behavioural therapy can help you find better strategies to help you conquer your distressing moods in this mood disorder.

Medication

When other treatment options have been futile attempts, the doctor might help you find medications that are effective in treating PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder).

Antidepressants

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the most effective antidepressant medications for the physical and psychological symptoms of PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder).

These antidepressant medications work by increasing the flow of serotonin which is used in the regulation of mood.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors that are used for PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) symptoms are the following:

  • citalopram or Celexa
  • escitalopram or Lexapro
  • fluoxetine or Prozac
  • paroxetine or Paxil
  • sertraline or Zoloft

There are also other antidepressant medications that are effective against PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) symptoms:

  • buspirone
  • duloxetine or Cymbalta
  • venlafaxine or Effexor

Other affected women find that taking these medications daily can bring significant effects but some affected women increase their dosage gradually which has shown to decrease the occurrence of PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder).

The doctor will work with you on what medications are beneficial for your symptoms.

You can learn more about selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors by buying this book here.

Hormonal medications

PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) symptoms come from a woman’s dysregulation of hormonal health.

This is why hormonal medications are used to treat these symptoms such as birth control pills.

Birth control tablets

Some women find birth control pills to significantly bring good effects against their PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) symptoms.

However, some affected women have these symptoms worse due to these pills.

Yaz is the only birth control pill that has been recently prescribed for women who are suffering from PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) symptoms.

Although some doctors can still prescribe other birth control tablets for women who have these symptoms. 

In this case, this birth control medication is used as an over-the-counter medication.

If you are taking these birth control pills daily, you will be given higher dosages from your doctor.

This will help in minimizing the occurrence of your period.

Birth control tablets are not helpful for women over the age of 25 or those who are having deteriorating smoking habits.

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist medications

These medications can help minimize the release of hormones such as estrogen which can help reduce your period and help minimize PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder).

However, these medications can make you have an early onset of menopause and these medications may have the following side effects:

  • depression
  • anxiety
  • trouble concentrating

Your doctor can make you get lower dosages of these medications which can help you minimize your side effects.

However, these lower dosages can also make you suffer the higher severity levels of these side effects.

Conclusion

In this brief guide, we have talked about the premenstrual dysphoric disorder, the symptoms of the premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and more information about the premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

If you have any questions about premenstrual dysphoric disorder, please let us know and the team will gladly answer your queries.

FAQs: Pmdd(premenstrual dysphoric disorder)

What hormone causes PMDD?

Estrogen is the hormone that causes PMDD.

When this hormone interacts with serotonin, it can cause menopausal symptoms in this kind of mood disorder.

This explains that hormone changes can create this kind of mood disorder in women.

How do you fix PMDD?

You can fix PMDD by doing the following exercises such as meditation, warm bath, aromatherapy, exercise, yoga, having a healthy and balanced diet, sleeping well, and taking products for menstrual periods.

How do you test for PMDD?

You can test for PMDD by checking if you may have some symptoms of this disorder, your medical history will be inquired and studied by your doctor, and you will take a physical examination.

What vitamins should I take for PMDD?

The vitamins that you should take for PMDD are calcium, magnesium, and vitamin E.

These kinds of vitamins are good in minimizing the distressing emotional symptoms of this kind of mood disorder.

Does PMDD cause weight gain?

PMDD causes weight gain since this is a normal physical symptom during the menstrual cycle.

This is because you may increase your appetite when you are undergoing your menstrual period.

Citations

Healthline. Could Your Severe PMS be PMDD?.

Mind. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).

NHS. PMS (premenstrual syndrome).

Womenshealth.gov. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).

PMDD(premenstrual dysphoric disorder)

Juanita Agboola

Juanita Agboola is the editor in chief of HFNE and an expert in mental health online. She has been writing about online behavior, mental health and psychology issues since 2012. All Guides are reviewed by our editorial team which constitutes various clinical psychologists, PhD and PsyD colleagues.