In this article we will discuss mindfulness and FFMQ
Mindfulness History and Origin
Mindfulness is a psychological term which is often used for one’s awareness, consciousness and attention. The word mindfulness came from the word “Sati” a “Pali” language word, which means ‘awareness’. The word ‘mind’ means to be aware and the ‘fullness’ means to entirely focus on something. The term of mindful is originally taken from Buddhism. In Buddhist thought, meditation plays a central role in cultivating the qualities and attitudes conducive to psychological and physical health. All of it started from the proposal of factors of Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn, 1990. Now it shows that to focus on something fully by using five senses and also with the use of common sense to some extent.
What is mindfulness?
Mindfulness is the quality of being present and fully engaged with whatever we’re doing at the moment. People understand mindfulness with different terms and with different meanings, like awareness, attention, focus, alertness, presence, vigilance, concentration, consciousness, consideration and caution etc. There are also many definitions to elaborate and explain mindfulness.
According to American Psychological Association (APA)
“…a moment-to-moment awareness of one’s experience without judgment. In this sense, mindfulness is a state and not a trait. While it might be promoted by certain practices or activities, such as meditation, it is not equivalent to or synonymous with them.”
According to the APA definition we know that mindfulness is the process of experiencing to the moment or environment being fully aware. It is a state, not innate quality. We have to learn and practice mindfulness in our daily routine of life, activities and happenings. Mindfulness is not the same as meditation, but meditation is a way with which we improve mindfulness, it relaxes our mind and helps a person to focus on surroundings.
“The awareness that arises from paying attention, on purpose, in the present moment and non-judgmentally” (Kabat-Zinn, in Purser, 2015). To Kabat-Zinn mindfulness is a conscious attention and awareness which leads a person to focus on the present situation or moment without judgement.
Mindfulness is a complete concentration on emotions, thoughts, experiences which occur in our surroundings. To be mindful a person becomes alert about inside and outside of himself clearly and doubtlessly; inside means the feelings, thoughts, emotions and subjectivity of one’s self and outside means to be aware from the surroundings with five senses and the objectivity. Mindfulness is also considered an ability to care about the happenings in the environment and be present in what we are doing and what is going to happen. It is a challenging situation to handle different moments at the same time.
How mindfulness works ?
Mindfulness affects biologically, psychologically, mentally, physical effects: A Longitudinal Study of Female College Students reveals that Mindfulness interventions are associated with a wide range of psychological and physical health benefits among both clinical and nonclinical populations. Previous research has shown that mindfulness training is related to decreased symptoms of impulsive/binge eating, improved sleep patterns, and lowered stress. It is clear that mindfulness influences a variety of health indices, including pain, medical symptomatology, and functional quality of life. It also decreases the negativity and promotes positive habits. The quality of life can also improve by the practice of mindfulness. It also Boosts the immune system, helping to fight illness, Reduces chronic pain Decreases blood pressure as well as the risk for heart disease Decreases anxiety, stress and depression Improves coping skills Increases positive emotions, wellbeing and self- esteem Improves focus, sharpens memory and helps block out distractions Reduces pregnancy-related stress, anxiety and depression Decreases aggression and behavioral problems in students Reduces symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in veterans Encourages healthier eating habits and helps with weight loss, when mindful eating is included Enhances relationships Reduces impulsivity Inspires us to be more compassionate, empathetic and less judgmental Decreases loneliness in the elderly Improves sleep quality.
Five facets of Mindful questionnaire (FFMQ)
Five facets of mindfulness is a psychological measurement to explore mindfulness. FFMQ consists of 39 question statements which measure the tendency of mindfulness in daily routine of life practice. These items measure the five facets or aspects of mindfulness called, Observation, Description, Aware actions, Non-judgmental inner experience and Non-reactivity. This scale measures the positive and negative worded items. This questionnaire assesses the ability of the subject to be aware in the experience of the moment.
There are 39 items in this questionnaire in which multiple choice answers are given. The participants have to select one answer.
1. When I’m walking, I deliberately notice the sensations of my body moving.
2. I’m good at finding words to describe my feelings
3. I criticize myself for having irrational or inappropriate emotions.
4. I perceive my feelings and emotions without having to react to them.
5. When I do things, my mind wanders off and I’m easily distracted.
6. When I take a shower or bath, I stay alert to the sensations of water on my Bod
7. I can easily put my beliefs, opinions, and expectations into words.
8. I don’t pay attention to what I’m doing because I’m daydreaming, worrying, or otherwise distracted.
9. I watch my feelings without getting lost in them.
10. I tell myself I shouldn’t be feeling the way I’m feeling.
11. I notice how foods and drinks affect my thoughts, bodily sensations, and emotions.
12. it’s hard for me to find the words to describe what I’m thinking.
13. I am easily distracted.
14. I believe some of my thoughts are abnormal or bad and I shouldn’t think that way.
15. I pay attention to sensations, such as the wind in my hair or sun on my face.
16. I have trouble thinking of the right words to express how I feel about things
17. I make judgments about whether my thoughts are good or bad.
18. I find it difficult to stay focused on what’s happening in the present.
19. When I have distressing thoughts or images, I “step back” and am aware of the thought or image without getting taken over by it.
20. I pay attention to sounds, such as clocks ticking, birds chirping, or cars passing.
21. In difficult situations, I can pause without immediately reacting.
22. When I have a sensation in my body, it’s difficult for me to describe it because I can’t find the right words.
23. It seems I am “running on automatic” without much awareness of what I’m doing.
24. When I have distressing thoughts or images, I feel calm soon after.
25. I tell myself that I shouldn’t be thinking the way I’m thinking
26. I notice the smells and aromas of things.
27. Even when I’m feeling terribly upset, I can find a way to put it into words.
28. I rush through activities without being really attentive to them.
29. When I have distressing thoughts or images I am able just to notice them without reacting.
30. I think some of my emotions are bad or inappropriate and I shouldn’t feel them.
31. I notice visual elements in art or nature, such as colors, shapes, textures, or patterns of light and shadow.
32. My natural tendency is to put my experiences into words.
33. When I have distressing thoughts or images, I just notice them and let them go.
34. I do jobs or tasks automatically without being aware of what I’m doing.
35. When I have distressing thoughts or images, I judge myself as good or bad, depending what the thought/image is about.
36. I pay attention to how my emotions affect my thoughts and behavior.
37. I can usually describe how I feel at the moment in considerable detail.
38. I find myself doing things without paying attention.
39. I disapprove of myself when I have irrational ideas.
1. Never or very rarely true 3. Sometimes true
2. Rarely true 4. Often true
5. Very often and always true
This scale analyzes the five elements that measure mindfulness in a person a brief elaboration is given below.
Experience the happenings in surroundings through sensation. It is also about to feel, thought, and the perception of any stimulus; external and internal. The items which leads to observation are:
· I pay attention to sensations, such as the wind in my hair or sun on my face.
· I tell myself I shouldn’t be feeling the way I’m feeling.
· When I take a shower or bath, I stay alert to the sensations of water on my Bod
· I pay attention to sounds, such as clocks ticking, birds chirping, or cars passing.
The way with which a subject describes his experiences, qualities and exposures to ourselves and to others. Explain the happenings with words. The items which leads to description are
When I’m walking, I deliberately notice the sensations of my body moving.
· I’m good at finding words to describe my feelings
· When I do things, my mind wanders off and I’m easily distracted.
· I notice how foods and drinks affect my thoughts, bodily sensations, and emotions
· I have trouble thinking of the right words to express how I feel about things
Focus on the activities which have been done by a subject. It delves deep into whether we can act out of quick judgment and get out of the autopilot mode before responding to a situation. Being intensely aware of what you’re sensing and feeling in the moment, without interpretation or judgment. The items in the questionnaire which lead to aware actions are.
· I don’t pay attention to what I’m doing because I’m daydreaming, worrying, otherwise distracted.
· It’s hard for me to find the words to describe what I’m thinking.
· I make judgments about whether my thoughts are good or bad
· When I have a sensation in my body, it’s difficult for me to describe it because I can’t find the right words.
· It seems I am “running on automatic” without much awareness of what I’m doing.
Non-judgmental inner experiences
The attitude or behavior without judgments related to experiences. Accepting situation with who we disagree. It calls for self-acceptance and unconditional empathy for oneself and others. The items of questionnaire which lead to non-judgmental experiences are
- I perceive my feelings and emotions without having to react to them
- I can easily put my beliefs, opinions, and expectations into words.
- I believe some of my thoughts are abnormal or bad and I shouldn’t think that way.
- When I have distressing thoughts or images, I “step back” and am aware of the thought or image without getting taken over by it.
- When I have distressing thoughts or images, I feel calm soon after.
This aspect refers to active detachment from negative thoughts and emotions so that we can accept their existence and choose not to react to them. Allowing the free flow of thoughts and emotions without getting caught up in by them or without rejecting them. The items of questionnaire which lead to non-reactive inner experiences are.
- I criticize myself for having irrational or inappropriate emotions.
- I watch my feelings without getting lost in them.
- I am easily distracted.
- I find it difficult to stay focused on what’s happening in the present.
- In difficult situations, I can pause without immediately reacting.
The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire is self-score able and easily accessible. There are two patterns of scoring involved in the Five Facet Mindfulness Test
- · Direct scoring: in direct scoring the items are scored according to Likert value. For example, 1 would add a score of 1 and 4 adds value of 4.
- · Reverse scoring: where we score the items backward. For example, 1 adds a score of 5, 5 adds a score of 1, 4 would mean a score of 3, and likewise.
In another simple way the 39 items of the FFMQ are rated on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (never or very rarely true) to 5 (very often or always true). In addition to considering scores on the five subscales individually, facet scores can be combined to produce an overall mindfulness score.
Reliability and validity
Analyses of the psychometric properties of the FFMQ-39 have generally demonstrated that this measure has satisfactory convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency, interpretability in distinguishing between participant subgroups, and incremental validity in predicting psychological symptoms and well-being across samples of regular meditators and non meditators.
The 39 items of the FFMQ are rated on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (never or very rarely true) to 5 (very often or always true). In addition to considering scores on the five subscales individually, facet scores can be combined to produce an overall mindfulness score.
Although the psychometric properties of the FFMQ-39 have been supported, findings from a series of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) studies question the validity of its five-factor structure and the inclusion of all five subscales.
Meditation status results in differential factor structures emerging for the FFMQ-39; a study evaluating the measure’s factor structure before and after an MBI in the same sample would provide a stronger test of whether mindfulness meditation experience changes the factor structure of the FFMQ-39.
Today’s mindfulness has been used as cognitive techniques. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an approach to psychotherapy that uses cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) methods in collaboration with mindfulness meditation practices and similar psychological strategies. Mindfulness is a psychological term which refers to the psychological state of awareness and consciousness. Practicing mindfulness involves breathing methods, guided imagery, and other practices to relax the body and mind and help reduce stress. Intervention can also refer to the act of using a similar technique within a therapy session.
The MBCT program is a group intervention that lasts eight weeks. During these eight weeks, there is a weekly course, which lasts two hours, and one day-long class after the fifth week. However, much of the practice is done outside of classes, where the participant uses guided meditations and attempts to cultivate mindfulness in their daily lives. MBCT focuses on having individuals recognize and be aware of their feelings instead of focusing on changing feelings. Through mindfulness, clients can recognize that holding onto some of these feelings is ineffective and mentally destructive. MBCT focuses on having individuals recognize and be aware of their feelings instead of focusing on changing feelings.
Although the primary purpose of MBCT is to prevent relapse in depressive symptomatology, clinicians have been formulating ways in which MBCT can be used to treat physical symptoms of other diseases such as diabetes, cancer, etc.
FAQs about ffmq
What is ffmq?
It is a five facet mindfulness questionnaire designed to measure mindfulness. This questionnaire combines five different questionnaires of mindfulness,
What is mindfulness?
Mindfulness is a state of being aware of the moment. It is the connection between the mind and the present state.
Is ffmq valid?
Researchers have established high construct validity of ffmq across different populations, cultures and age groups.
Kuyken, Willem; Watkins, Ed; Holden, Emily; White, Kat; Taylor, Rod S.; Byford, Sarah; Evans, Alison; Radford, Sholto; Teasdale, John D. (November 2010).
Alsubaie, Modi; Abbott, Rebecca; Dunn, Barnaby; Dickens, Chris; Keil, Tina Frieda; Henley, William; Kuyken, Willem (1 July 2017). “Mechanisms of action in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT)